by Susan Snyder, Ph.D.
Literature, whether a book text, oral story, poem, or script, provides a springboard for work on comprehension. You can explore the text through ears, eyes, bodies, and minds. You can use sound/music, image/visual art, movement/dance, storytelling/theater, and media arts/film. When considering adaptations for students with disabilities, remember that one disability does not impair other abilities.
- Establish routines and patterns for working with literature that provide options for expression, with a goal of comprehension.
- Use repetitive structures to provide students many chances to improve and succeed. The brain seeks pattern to learn, and repetition is a characteristic of many literary forms. Think of repetition in songs, visual art images, dances, and stories you know and love. Books have these repetitive patterns as well, whether a picture book or a passage from a chapter book.
- Provide choices to address student needs, and to challenge students to perceive the message through different lenses. Have students read or listen to the text four times, isolating the sounds, images, movements, and sequence. You can create a retelling with each student choosing to elaborate with either sound, gesture, or image.
- Help students learn writing mechanics with artistry. For example, imagine the shapes of punctuation, and how they might be visually organized on a page to emphasize the purpose of each. Victor Borge was a master of matching punctuation symbols with sounds for emotional effect. Add a movement for each, and you reinforce the concept visually, aurally, and kinesthetically.
- Be flexible about whether students write stories first, or read the stories of others. Some students do better when they write first, then read. Others prefer to read first, then pull out key words or phrases to inspire their writing.
For some students, our adaptations allow them to achieve in one modality when they cannot through traditional strategies. For those who succeed in traditional classrooms, they sometimes find that they are lacking the skills to think and learn through music, visual art, dance and theater. For all students, exploring literature through multiple modalities enriches learning and increases understanding.
Susan Snyder, Ph.D. is an arts-integration teacher and consultant, and president of arts education IDEAS: a company supporting the art of exceptional teaching and learning. Susan creates curriculum designs that place the arts and artistic processes at the center of inclusive learning strategies. She has developed Total Learning, an arts-integrated professional development program www.aeideas.com.