Five Tips for Teaching West African Drumming to Students with Disabilities

By Aidan Owens

West African drumming is a great way for teachers and students to address a variety of goals in a fun, supportive, and musical environment. This social, sensory, and scaffolded music is energetic and participatory, and can be an excellent arts learning tool for students with disabilities.

Here are five quick tips to help get your West African music ensemble off the ground!

  1. Get everybody involved. You don’t have to be a master drummer to participate in this music. Give all students a role, regardless of their ability or musical background. Stress to the whole group that every part is important; whether someone is playing a rain stick or the lead drum, they are integral to the ensemble’s sound!
  2. Get creative with instrumentation. Rain sticks, egg shakers, and rhythm sticks are fun ways to get emerging musicians involved in music making, and they sound great. Buckets and other everyday items can be stand ins for traditional instruments in a pinch. Encouraging students to experiment with different instrument options allows everyone to find which works best for them.
  3. Teach multimodally. Expose your students to new information and musical parts in a variety of ways—drum language, modeling, written notation, and color coding can all be used. West African drumming is great for all kinds of learners because there are always numerous ways to teach and learn a part.
  4. Give context. Talk about the background and history of the music. Show videos, do research projects, or even find pen pals abroad. Context and a personal connection will make the music more powerful and provide an outlet for students with disabilities to work on non-music skills.
  5. Have fun! Play games with your students that work on rhythm, tempo, and dynamics. Allow time for improvisation and encourage students to take turns leading the class in a drum circle or game. This is complex music, but that doesn’t mean it can’t be fun! These informal music activities boost morale and allow for informal assessment opportunities.

 

Photo of Aidan Owens

 

Aidan Owens is an educator from Western Massachusetts who is passionate about learning, teaching, and innovating new ways to integrate music and special education.

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Five Tips for Working with Families of Students with Disabilities

By Alyson M. Martin, Ed.D. and Emily R. Shamash, Ed.D.

Effective communication is the foundation for promoting an enduring trust between families and educational professionals, including arts educators. It is trust that is imperative for successful long-term partnerships between families and educators to enhance the teaching, learning, and progress of students with disabilities (Cox, 2005; Dunst, 2002; Turnbull et al, 2011; Wellner, 2012).

The tips below include guidelines for communicating effectively with families of children with disabilities in order to initiate and maintain positive and collaborative working relationships in and out of the arts classroom.

 

  1. Initiate contact before it is a necessity. It is crucial that we build a trend of positive contact with families prior to contacting them about a problem with their child. Ensure families have information about what is happening with their student; some parents/caregivers may not be aware an in-school arts residency is happening in their child’s classroom. You can set a positive tone on the first day of a program by sending a brief personal email or note introducing yourself to parents/caregivers and letting them know how their child’s first day went.

 

  1. Always begin with the positive. All students have positive attributes and have skills that are worthy of praise. Be careful not to define your students by their weaknesses, but rather what they do well. Always share something positive with families prior to sharing negative reports or feedback. This is important when writing reports, reporting progress/updates at a meeting, and when sending emails or notes home. This will set the stage for establishing a positive and trusting relationship with each family.

 

  1. Keep parents in the know. Providing parents with information about their child’s progress can empower them to be true team members and can help eliminate mistrust. Doing this does not need to be extremely time consuming; you can simply send parents a brief email or a note weekly or bi-weekly reporting something positive and providing suggestions for a skill that can be worked on at home. If your program happens at your own arts venue, be sure to alert parents of important events or changes to their child’s day such as a schedule change, staff change, new behavior plan, field trips, special classroom events, and/or significant behavioral occurrences (this can be positive behavior too).

 

  1. Invite carryover, but do not expect it. It is wonderful when families can carryover skills worked on in the arts classroom at home. However, we need to remember that families often have more than one child, busy schedules, and outside stressors. It can be helpful to ask parents what types of activities are easiest for them to do at home. Then you can offer ideas and strategies tailored to each family’s needs.

 

  1. Our students are not the only ones who benefit from positive reinforcement. Parents need positive reinforcement too! Praise parents and primary caregivers for how they are supporting their child and point out successes big or small. We all need encouragement, motivation, and support, including families of students with disabilities.

 

Emily Shamash, Ed.D., is a Visiting Assistant Professor and Co-director of the Special Education Program in the Graduate School of Education and Allied Professionals at Fairfield University. She is a certified special educator who specializes in working with children with autism spectrum disorders and their families. Alyson Martin, Ed.D., is an Assistant Professor and Co-director of the Special Education Program in the Graduate School of Education and Allied Professionals at Fairfield University. She is also a certified special education teacher. Together, Dr. Martin and Dr. Shamash have over 25 years of experiences working with children and families of children with disabilities in school, home and community settings.

Five Tips for Art Teachers Working with Children Who Have Experienced Trauma

By Bev Johns

Estimates show that 46 million children are impacted every year by trauma. The content and processes of art education can play a vital role in the education of children who have experienced trauma, are at-risk, are homeless, and/or are incarcerated. As educators, we must be very sensitive to the needs of children who have experienced trauma and better understand why they may behave in the way they do.

In order to establish positive rapport and to meet the needs of children who have experienced trauma, we must gather as much information as possible about what types of trauma they may have experienced. That may be possible because we have learned about their background or the child has told us. However in some cases we may not know what has happened to the child until an incident occurs and we investigate what may have caused him or her to behave in a particular way.

1. Learn as much as you can about the child’s background without being invasive with the child. We must be careful that we are not asking too many questions of the child. They may be guarded and afraid that someone will find out something that will get them into trouble. Art teachers can learn a great deal through observations, keeping their eyes and ears open, talking to previous educators, and reading past records. We must be vigilant and when students have unusual reactions to specific events or rooms or noises, we need to explore the reasons for those reactions.

When children build trust with the art teacher, then they may give verbal or non-verbal clues about their behavior. Teachers must be good detectives to determine what is happening with the student. You may learn that you or your colleagues remind the child of the person who abused them, or trigger another traumatic memory.

2. Avoid surprises with children who have experienced trauma. Remember that they are on heightened alert and are worried about what might be happening next so we should not come up from behind students. In some cases we may want to seat these children so that no one is behind them. While some teachers like to turn lights off when children become noisy, this isn’t advisable for some children that were locked in a dark room. A high level of noise might trigger a reaction from a child because he remembers the loud noise when his brother was shot on the street in front of his house.

3. When planning activities, think ahead about what impact the activity might have on the student. Even activities that an art educator might perceive as straightforward or simple can become loaded due to a child’s traumatic experience. Offer choices to students about what they can create to help avoid triggering bad memories. For instance, children who have been recently removed from their families or placed in foster care might struggle with assignments that involve drawing or painting their family; it is helpful to offer another option for the assignment.

4. When planning activities, be cautious about the materials you use. The child may have been hurt with a particular object so you would want to avoid an activity where the same object is used. The child may have limited clothing or may have been beaten if their clothes got dirty. In that case, the art teacher will want to provide students the option of wearing protective clothing when utilizing art materials that may get on clothes.

5. Make sure that your art room is a safe and happy place for the child. Create an environment in the art room where lots of positive feedback is given, the child is recognized for his or her strengths, and the child knows that the teacher will not allow them to be bullied in any way. The teacher must be supportive and engage in active listening with the student. Rather than devaluing what the child says, gather more information. When the child says, “I can’t do that,” the teacher can say, “How can I help you?” When the child says, “This is too hard,” the teacher can say, “Can you tell me why,” or “Let’s try this together.”

The art room is the place where there are no right or wrong answers, It is a place where children have multiple opportunities to be creative, express their feelings, and experience success.

Photo of a smiling woman with short, blonde hair wearing a red jacket, black shirt, and round gold earrings.

 

Bev Johns is a Professional Fellow at MacMurray College in Jacksonville, Illinois. She has worked with children with significant emotional and behavioral disorders for over 35 years and is the author of 20 books in the area of special education.

Five Tips for Working with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disturbances

By Sophie Lucido Johnson

Emotional and Behavioral Disturbances can take myriad forms. Some students act out in the classroom, while others turn inward and demonstrate quietly self-destructive behavior. The tips below are guidelines for using visual arts as a tool to help students establish their own self-worth as they move forward in multiple school settings.

  1. Celebrate small successes. Just picking up a paintbrush and creating a simple line can be an accomplishment for some students. Be sure to mention and honor students’ willingness to engage in basic artistic tasks, and don’t push too hard toward form or function at first.
  2. Know that progress does not travel in a straight line. It’s normal to see bursts of success and then periods of emotional unrest. If a student has a meltdown, it doesn’t mean she isn’t growing. Expect hills and peaks, and normalize relapses.
  3. Use abstract art. Shapes and lines that don’t have to resemble something specific offer the kind of freedom that can be tremendously liberating for students with emotional disturbances.
  4. Allow variant workspaces. Sometimes students like to work under tables or in corners; many children work best outside or in particular rooms. Experiment with spaces to find the ones that make your students feel safest and most creative.
  5. Don’t punish. Many children with EBD are used to being punished for “doing things wrong,” which can be a trigger for meltdowns and behavioral disruptions. Let art be the one class where students can’t get things wrong. Use neutral language when students don’t follow directions.

 

Sophie Lucido Johnson is a writer, comedian, educator, and artist. Her article “Emotional Intelligence Through Art: Strategies for Children with Emotional Behavioral Disturbances” is published in 2013 VSA Intersections: Arts and Special Education Exemplary Programs and Approaches.

Five Tips for Using Embodied Storytelling to Build Student Vocabulary and Communication Skills

By Arianna Ross

Embodied Storytelling is an art form utilizing the body and voice to tell, analyze, and create a “story.”  Its process directly leads participants into comprehension of the material they have embodied. In its presentation in the classroom, a teacher will use a combination of dance, storytelling, drama, and visual art elements to teach various subject matters.

Having students move and speak in front of their peers builds self-confidence, body awareness, and vocal strength. The tips in this article, originally developed in collaboration with Suzanne Richard, Open Circle Theater, and Story Tapestries, provide effective tools for increasing a student’s ability to comprehend and effectively use vocabulary through arts-integrated instruction.

The strategies listed below are inherently accessible to multiple types of learners and are consciously inclusive, regardless of students’ developmental or physical abilities. These educational tools, geared at students in preschool through 8th grade, can also be used to tie into STEM, language arts, writing, and socio-emotional learning. A teacher can utilize these tips in various subjects, using a combination of dance, storytelling, drama, and visual art elements. The tips also serve to allow teachers to assess knowledge and students to demonstrate their ability to communicate clear, creative ideas both verbally and non-verbally.

 

  1. Act out everyday words to jump start learning. We encourage students to focus on increasing their “Power Words,” which are any words that empower students to feel more confident about their vocabulary. They can do this by acting out, vocalizing, and visualizing vocabulary they see and experience on a daily basis. Additionally, the meanings of simpler words are reinforced as they are being physically and mentally learned.
  2. Utilize partners to explore words and ideas. For students who find it difficult to move, we have found it valuable to employ a “Gesture Partner” who models and speaks to their partner about how to move to reflect the meaning of a word; if this student is comfortable with being touched, the partner can move the student’s arms for them. Likewise, students with difficulties in speaking can use a “Voice Partner” to verbalize ideas. This partnership can be employed in games that provide exercises in mirror imaging, body or voice sculpting, and puppet play (in which one person is the marionette and the other is the puppeteer).
  3. Consider introducing one step or one exercise per day. For example, spend a day using your voice to play with a word. The next day, ask students to turn off their voices and show the word, and on the third day, practice putting word and gesture or movement together. Once students have broken it down into pieces multiple times, they will be able to do all three activities at once. Also, it is helpful to draw a picture of the word so diverse types of learners have a visual, kinesthetic, and audio demonstration of the meaning of the word.
  4. Physicalize words. Model and use tableau (a grouping of motionless figures, representing a scene from a story, painting, or from history; also, known as a tableau vivant) to teach a specific concept, in this case, vocabulary. It is important to model one word before you have students create their tableaus alone. Tell them that although a tableau is a frozen picture, they will be moving into their tableau from a neutral position. Their movement should not be robotic, but should illustrate the meaning of the word just as the tableau does. Once they do freeze, their tableau should clearly demonstrate the meaning of the word.
  5. Connect words and story one section at a time. It is important that when you apply the acting out of words to develop students’ understanding of a story, you read through the story one section at a time, repeating it using multiple strategies. This is especially useful for students with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disabilities. Just as it takes time to explore words with voice and gesture before putting them together (see tip 3), it is important to break stories into a beginning, middle and end. Also, it is helpful to draw out a story with students so they have a visual, kinesthetic, and audio demonstration of the meaning of the words.

 

_MG_6147Story Tapestries and Arianna Ross create international, dynamic programs that weave the power of dance, music, theatre, and spoken word. For 20 years, Arianna has performed and taught students and teachers across the United States and Asia at festivals, concert halls, colleges, libraries, and schools and for organizations such as the National Writing Project @ West Virginia University, East Tennessee State University, Hillwood Museum, and Washington Performing Arts. She is also a contributor to the book Storytelling Strategies for Reaching and Teaching Students with Special Needs.

For more information on Embodied Storytelling, check out our 2015 interview with Arianna Ross and Suzanne Richard.

 

Seven Tips for Using Storytelling to Engage Students with Disabilities

By Sherry Norfolk

Storytelling is a natural, organic way to engage students with cognitive, physical, and emotional disabilities in story-making and story-sharing. Here are a few tips:

  1. Make it multi-modal. Storytelling provides opportunities for the teller to use meaningful facial expression and body language, expressive character voices, sound effects, and audience interaction – making the stories accessible to auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learners.
  2. Note audience response. This feedback allows you to differentiate accordingly – moving the action away from some students and towards others, for example. You’ll be surprised what you learn!
  3. Call it storyMAKING rather than story writing. Take the onus off of the mechanics and put the emphasis on the creativity and fun! Stories can be made and shared with pictures, puppets, in creative drama, orally, with props, students’ own tools, or adaptive technology.
  4. Model, model, model. Model the process of generating a story, first by telling a story with a clear pattern (think folktales here), then using that pattern to lead the group in brainstorming new characters, settings, and so on.
  5. Tell the resulting story – then let the class explore it through creative dramatics, puppets, etc., until it’s clear that the pattern is understood. Students can then work separately or in pairs to generate their own ideas and present their story to the class in whatever way they choose.
  6. Repeat, repeat, repeat. Research tells us that kids will continue to ask for the same story as long as they “need it” – emotionally, intellectually, socially – so tell it again, and make up more new versions together!
  7. ENJOY!

 

Picture of a woman in a black shirt and necklace, with short, light brown hair, smiling with her arms crossed.

 

Sherry Norfolk is an award-winning storyteller, author, and teaching artist. She performs and leads residencies and workshops internationally, introducing children and adults to story making and storytelling. www.sherrynorfolk.com

The Five Ws + an H of Program Evaluation

By Erin J. Hoppe

Whether you work at an organization with dozens of employees or just one, evaluation is essential to accountability, transparency, and continuous improvement. I come from the later of these dichotomies, but will always prioritize evaluation as a way to measure our success and work smarter. With limited funds but unlimited demands, it is essential to take a critical look at our work. Here are a few tips on how to make evaluation work, no matter the organizational circumstances.

  1. Why – Start here. Aside from the few reasons previous noted, you need to identify the specific reasons why evaluation is important for your program. Are you trying to understand the impact, increase efficiency and effectiveness, or demonstrate value to stakeholders? Having this answer will help you make a plan and address the rest of the evaluation process.
  2. What – This matters a lot because it shapes your research question and strategy. Clarify what you want to learn from this process and what you will do with the information. This is more specific than the “why.” What you want to know will determine what data you collect, from who, and how—do you need a pre-post-test or interviews?
  3. Who – No one is an island and no evaluation has ever been conducted by a single person. Someone is providing the data you are collecting. Someone is analyzing the information. Someone is expecting a report on the results. Build a team to help you get through the process and always over-thank participants for the extra work you are asking of them.
  4. Where – Is this evaluation taking place in your building or schools across the state? The lines of communication between administrators and participants should be wide open and responsive. Think about providing the evaluation in multiple formats and make sure there is a clear path from data collection to analysis to reporting.
  5. When – Evaluations can be a short survey after an event or span several years. Either way, I make the same recommendation for evaluation as I do for accessibility: it should be a line item during planning meetings and in the budget. This doesn’t have to mean spending more than you can afford, but it does demonstrate value.
  6. How – Large institutions might have a team with “evaluation” in their job description and funds to make it happen. Others need to find funders and outside experts. Either way, with a clear “why” and “what” the work will happen.

The best advice I can offer in program evaluation is to be thoughtful, flexible, and tenacious. Whatever the scope of your project, the results should inform your practices (even if they aren’t what you expected), and just might move the field forward so we all learn something new. I look forward to reading your findings.

 

Erin Hoppe's headshot

VSA Ohio Executive Director Erin Hoppe

Erin J. Hoppe is approaching her ten-year anniversary as executive director of VSA Ohio (www.vsao.org). Her background in evaluation includes work at VSAO, The Ohio State University, American Institutes for Research, and the Smithsonian Institution. She is a board member for Columbus Arts Marketing Association, Ohio Citizens for the Arts, and ADA Ohio. If you can’t find her in the office, she is probably working on a home improvement project or bird watching.

Five Tips for Creating Accessible Conference Sessions

By Diane Nutting

Conferences are a vital part of our professional development. The opportunity to learn more about innovations in the industry, share new insights and approaches, and network with our colleagues provides inspiration and often results in new ideas, new work, and new partnerships. Creating an accessible conference session ensures that ALL our colleagues are included within these learning communities. The five tips below can aid in your planning facilitation.

1. Consider the room layout. Think about the environment you want to create for your session, and how you want your attendees to engage and/or share information with each other. Use this information to decide how you want tables and chairs arranged—taking into account the physical accessibility of the space before, after, and during the session. Once you are in the space, plan for the positioning of service providers such as sign language interpreters and real time captioning as well as the attendees utilizing those services, and keep an eye to lighting, glare, or other visual distractions in the room.

2. Create a safe space. Set the tone at the beginning of your session so that attendees feel safe to explore new ideas without the fear of making “mistakes,” or saying “the wrong thing.” Provide and accept a wide range of participation levels depending on comfort level. Encourage the use of “I” statements during discussions to frame opinions or thoughts. Create and encourage a session environment where attendees can ask for the support or clarification they need.

3. Facilitate accessible activities. Provide various entry points and participation strategies for your session activities. Make sure that hanging or displayed materials are at an appropriate and accessible height and distance for your attendees. Provide materials that can support engagement (examples: if using tennis balls for an activity, consider bean bags which can be easier to catch and grasp; provide markers that are both large and small). Make sure any handouts are designed for accessibility* (font, layout, etc.), and provide alternative formats of the materials (digital access, large print, etc.).

4. Support your slides. Design your PowerPoint so that font sizes, color schemes, and formatting aligns to accessible guidelines.* Throughout your session, be sure to audio describe any images or photos on slides, and spell out any web addresses. Avoid putting large amounts of text on the screen for attendees to read on their own; instead, read that text as part of your facilitation.

5. Make sure everyone is “heard”: Encourage one speaker at a time during discussions. If amplification is available in the room, ensure that everyone uses a microphone (including you). Repeat comments and questions, and clarify any acronyms or industry jargon/terminology that is used. Take note of participation that is only perceived visually and describe it verbally (examples: if you ask for a “show of hands,” be sure to indicate the percentage of response; if attendees are nodding their heads in response, share that information— “I see many of you nodding in agreement”).

Accessibility within conference sessions is about thinking ahead, maintaining a “read” of your session attendees, and being a flexible and creative problem solver in the moment. Even more importantly, when you take steps to ensure accessibility for your own session, your actions might very well influence the ideas of inclusion and accessibility within the overall conference environment as well!

 

* Resources for creating accessible materials (courtesy of Sina Bahram)

 

A woman with shoulder-length, wavy brown hair, wearing a red and white scarf around her neck and a red shirt.Diane Nutting works as a consultant at the intersections of disability, arts, and education—specializing in training design and facilitation, project coordination, and strategic planning. She has worked with artists and K-Adult students of all abilities as a teacher, administrator, and artistic collaborator; and also has extensive experience in conference settings as a conference coordinator, staff member, and avid session presenter.   She served for nine years as the Director of Access and Inclusion for Imagination Stage, working to provide accessible and inclusive performing arts experiences for all students, patrons, and artists.   

Five Tips for Using the Arts to Introduce Job Skills to Youth with Disabilities

By Damon McLeese

Young adulthood is a time of wonder, exploration, and often the time a person lands their first job. For teens with disabilities, this first paycheck may be rather elusive. At VSA Colorado, we use a commission-based project to strengthen their skill set, expose them to the concept of a job, and do amazing things for their self-esteem. The following tips are based on the concept of Commission-Based Creation or creating art for a client.

 

  1. There is no I in team – Very few jobs in this world are done in isolation. We all work in teams and must learn to cooperate, interact, and support one another. Many teens with disabilities have very little opportunity to work in teams, so at VSA Colorado we engage students in a team project. When the work is finished, everyone shares in the success.

 

  1. One coach – Creating art collaboratively is a new experience for many youth with disabilities. Creating art for a specific client is often a more alien concept. At VSA Colorado, we hire a lead artist that is the coach or boss for the team. The job of this coach is to make sure everyone is represented and the work is of the highest quality. It does no one any good if the work is not well presented.

 

  1. Research – Youth with disabilities often have no knowledge of corporate workplace culture. At VSA Colorado, we find visiting the client’s worksite to be critical to understanding the culture of an organization. By visiting the client, teens are able to see a workplace. We focus on the feel and look of the place, the colors, and furniture. Then ask the client what type of art they are looking for and develop ideas collaboratively. When possible, we have the client visit our studio during the creation of the piece.

 

  1. Money matters –A basic understanding of money is one important job skill to develop with youth with disabilities. At VSA Colorado, we create a project budget and share the budget with the team. We address questions like, “How much do you have to work with? What might the materials cost? Where are we going to get the materials?” If possible, we pay each participant to continue the lesson in financial responsibility.

 

  1. Expect professionalism – When teaching job skills, it is important to clearly outline the expectations of the work sessions. Who is responsible for the set up and clean up? What are the behavior expectations? At VSA Colorado, we hold the team accountable and check in with everyone at the conclusion of each session.

 

When the work is completed at our studio, we have every member of the team reflect on the piece and the experience. When possible, we have the team deliver the artwork to the client. Celebrating the teens’ success is important and encourages further use of the skills they have developed.

 

Damon McLeese is the executive director of VSA Colorado/Access Gallery. He has created and manages several innovative programs including the ArtWorks Program, which supports youth with disabilities as they transition from high school to young adulthood. Most of the programs Damon has designed aim to bridge the gap between disability and economic opportunity through the arts. 

Five Tips for Using Universal Design for Learning to Promote Arts Integrated Literacy Instruction

By Heather Francis

Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a framework for curriculum design that supports students with and without disabilities in becoming expert learners.1,2 By proactively applying UDL, teachers can better support diverse learners in their classrooms as they engage with arts integrated literacy curricula. 

  • Integrate the arts into the representation. Through drama-based pedagogies (DBP), students represent shared stories by acting them out in class. DBP is a research-informed practice that supports the development of reading, social skills, expressive/receptive language, and creative thinking.3,4 Students take the lead as they use gestures, movement, and visual cues to convey meaning. This representation provides students with and without disabilities with additional opportunities to develop oral language and vocabulary skills.5
  • Use the arts to drive purposeful learning. Teachers can guide students as they engage in dance or movement activities to build both their social and academic vocabularies by incorporating movement into the heart of any lesson.5 Rather than using decontextualized movement breaks to promote self-regulation for students with and without disabilities, teachers can help all learners to develop foundational literacy skills while supporting their persistence across the school day.
  • Move beyond action and expression. The visual and performing arts may be logically added on to the end of a lesson or unit. After students have engaged with traditional approaches to literacy learning, teachers may support students in the dramatization or visual representation of what they have read. However, by proactively integrating the arts into how they engage students and represent literacy content throughout the lesson, teachers help students with and without disabilities to make more substantial academic gains toward their individual and grade level goals.3,4
  • Enlist local support. General and special educators may not think they know enough about the arts to integrate practices into their literacy curriculum. By collaborating with local theater groups, businesses, and parents who value the arts,3 students with and without disabilities will have opportunities to develop literacy skills in specific contexts while fostering collaboration and community.1
  • Support expert learning. The goal of using the UDL framework is to support expert learning.2 We want to help students become purposeful, motivated, resourceful, knowledgeable, strategic, and goal-directed learners.1 Infusing the arts into literacy instruction provides rich opportunities for interdisciplinary work while helping students with and without disabilities to develop flexibility, critical thinking skills, metacognitive abilities, and self-efficacy.4

 

Photo of a woman with shoulder length blonde hair, smiling and wearing a blue button-down shirt.Heather Francis is an Implementation Specialist at CAST, where she supports educators in infusing Universal Design for Learning (UDL) into their practice. Prior to her work at CAST, Heather worked as a special education teacher, focused on supporting students’ language and literacy development.

 

 

 

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References

1CAST (2014). Universal design for learning guidelines version 3.0. Wakefield, MA.

2Rose, D.H. & Gravel, J.W. (2009). Getting from here to there: UDL, global positioning systems, and lessons for improving education. In D.T. Gordon, J.W. Gravel, & L.A. Shifter (Eds.) A policy reader in universal design for learning (pp. 5–18). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

3 Carney, C.L., Weltsek, G.J., Hall, M.L. & Brinn, G. (2016). Arts infusion and literacy achievement within underserved communities: A matter of equity. Arts Education Policy Review, 117(4), 230–243.

4 Robinson, H. (2013). Arts integration and the success of disadvantaged students: A research evaluation. Arts Education Policy Review, 114(4), 191–204.

5 Brouillette, L. (2012). Supporting the Language Development of Limited English Proficient Students through Arts Integration in the Primary Grades. Arts Education Policy Review, 113(2), 68–74.